The amphibian class includes three orders; their representatives are characterized by the presence of a tail or legs, which is how they differ from each other. Amphibians include tailed and tailless amphibians, as well as legless amphibians, called legless. Each unit is characterized by individual characteristics. In this article we will talk about tailed amphibians, the features of their life and other interesting facts related to them. But first, let's talk about the amphibian class as a whole.
General characteristics of the class
The structure of the bodies of amphibian larvae is similar to that of fish, and in adulthood, individuals are close to reptiles. In most representatives of the class, the body does not have hairline, the color allows masking well. In poisonous varieties, the color is flashy, frightening.
Amphibians differ from fish in that they do not have fins. Instead, there are limbs. In addition, the hearing organ is more developed in amphibians than in fish. Eyes see at a considerable distance. The skin of amphibians is filled with glands, in some representatives they secrete toxic secrets.
There is no chest, some do not have lungs. Amphibians breathe not only light, but also skin. The heart is two or three chamber. In the brain, the anterior section with gray matter is well developed, the cerebellum is underdeveloped. The tongue is mobile, helps to capture food. There are salivary glands. Body temperature is determined by the temperature of the surrounding space.
Range and Division
Amphibians are found on any continent except Antarctica. They live near ponds and in humid, warm places. Animals are practically not adapted to life on land; they move poorly on it. Some live only in water, others on land.
Aquatic species are mostly tailed amphibians, but there are also some tailless ones. Among terrestrial tailless individuals. These are various frogs, tree frogs.
Distinctive features of amphibians with tails
The order of caudate amphibians totals 500 species. Their body is elongated, flowing smoothly into the tail. On the forelimbs 3-4 fingers, on the back - 2-5. Some animals are completely devoid of limbs, while others do not have only hind limbs. Some of them crawl, others swim, rare representatives can move very quickly or jump.
Swimming in water, amphibians firmly press their paws to the body. The shape of the body, the method of movement, and other features make it possible to attribute amphibians to the simplest class of living things.
The skeletal system is represented by vertebrae, the number of which varies from 36 to 98. The shape of the vertebrae is amphicelic or opistocellal. Primitive forms have an embryonic chord that lasts throughout their lives.
Representatives of caudate amphibians do not have true ribs, they have only upper small costal bones, as in fish. The ear bones are represented by a pair, there is also an anterior. Eardrum is absent.
The simplest caudate amphibians, the structure of which we are considering, have a circulatory system. Some species breathe due to the mucous layer of the oral cavity, lungs and skin. Some have no lungs, they breathe in the skin and mouth, and their heart has two chambers.
Most of the caudate amphibians are characterized by internal fertilization. The female takes possession of bags of spermatophores left by males. Then the female takes care of the offspring, wrapping eggs in leaves, protects the masonry.
Let us consider in more detail some representatives of the class.
An ordinary newt (it will be discussed about) is named after the ancient Greek sea deity who controls the water element. The species has seven subspecies. The length of the body of the newt along with the tail can reach 9 cm. It is found in many countries of Eurasia. It is considered a predator.
An ordinary newt lives mainly in forests, not far from water bodies. It can be met in gardens, kitchen gardens and even in big cities. In spring and early summer, he is in the water, then gets out to land. He likes to be under stones, stumps, snags, in holes and pits. Here it also winters or spends the winter in ponds.
The males and females of the newt differ little from each other. During mating games, the males grow a crest on the back, a beautiful strip of a bluish shiny shade and an orange fringe are formed on the tail. In females, such changes do not occur.
Tritons feed on invertebrates, in water they absorb:
On earth, newts feed on:
By the third year of life, newts are already able to multiply. This period begins in March and lasts until the end of June. The female, using cloaca, absorbs spermatophores prepared by the male. After some time, the female lays eggs, their number is from 60 to 700. After 7-20 days, larvae emerge, metamorphosis occurs after 2 months. Some larvae may remain in this form for the winter.
At the end of the breeding season, the males lose their mating outfit. In nature, they then go to land. Tritons live up to 28 years.
Marble ambistoma lives in North America, where such animals are often kept in terrariums. She is calm about life on earth, unlike her other brothers.
Outwardly, the amphibian resembles a salamander. He has a wide head and small eyes, smooth skin, often decorated with bright spots or stripes.
Adult ambistomes live on the ground, take shelter under leaves or crawl out into holes. These amphibians are loners. They feed on invertebrates. Propagation in this species by ambistois occurs on land, unlike other species that breed in water. The female lays eggs once a year and protects the clutch from which the larvae emerge.
Graceful and slender animals are salamanders. These caudate amphibians comprise more than 200 species. They are divided into two families:
- real ones
- lungless salamanders.
Representatives of these families differ in that the individuals of the first group have lungs, animals can live on land and in water. Representatives of the second family live only in water.
All salamanders have an elongated body and tail, a small head and tiny paws. Their body is covered with delicate skin, with the help of which the animal breathes. Some salamanders on the skin have glands that secrete toxic substances. The color of animals is diverse, it is nondescript or very bright.
Most often, salamanders are found in North America, but they also live in Europe and Asia. Most of them live in water bodies. Salamanders are single. Their activity occurs in the dark. In winter, most salamanders spend hibernation.
Their food is slugs, insects, wood lice. Fertilization is external, as in many other amphibians. Many species of salamanders are protected due to the limited population.
The monster of medieval stories
European Proteus is an amphibian with a limited habitat. It is found in streams and cave lakes in Yugoslavia and in Northern Italy.
In the Middle Ages, the protea was considered a monster crawling out of the bowels of the earth and bringing misfortunes.
The animal spends its entire life in the dark at a temperature of no higher than 10 degrees. This is an aquatic representative of the species; it does not live on land. He has lungs, but he cannot breathe them, so on land the animal dies.
Proteus grows to a length of 25-40 cm. The body has a red-pink color. The limbs are small in size, gills are located on the head, and the tail is short. The skin is thin, internal organs are visible through it. The eyes are small in size, can be hidden under the skin. The development of the eyes is inhibited in the initial stages, since Proteus lives in the dark. However, it can perceive light, not only through the eyes, but also on the skin on which the photosensitive cells are located.
Males and females do not differ. Males lay spermatophores on their territory, where they do not allow other males. Females are viviparous. In total, 12-80 eggs are laid, of which two are formed, the rest serve as food for them. Larvae develop within three months.
Features of the terrarium equipment
Recently, amphibians are often kept in a terrarium. This is usually done for the purpose of scientific study of animals. But there are amateurs breeding amphibians at home. Of course, the maintenance of such pets requires compliance with certain rules.
When constructing or acquiring a terrarium, you need to monitor its strength, since it will be exposed to hot water and disinfectants. The size of the tank is selected taking into account the size of the animal. It should not have slots and openings through which an amphibian can crawl out. High-quality ventilation is a prerequisite for the design of a terrarium. It should be remembered that any such reservoir is a small stretch of nature, therefore everything in it should be designed according to this purpose.
The terrarium provides a high level of humidity. The inhabitants of this living corner require careful attention, systematic nutrition and hygiene. In this case, we can hope for the successful maintenance of such pets.
So, we examined the features of tailed amphibians, the nuances of their life activity in nature, the most interesting representatives of the class, the general principles of keeping at home.
Zero-tailed mainly resembles a dark purple leech with a serpentine body. On his face he wears an empty white mask But with kanji "zero" (я, ray), engraved on it with a yellowish color, and also has five red hair-like strands, four of which grow above the mask, and one below. Zero-Tail also has a mouth that it can open very wide, containing large molars.
Zero-Tailed uses Shadow Hands.
Like Kurama, Zero-Tailed has the ability to sense negative emotions, which he uses to detect them, and then take control of anyone who is emotionally unstable. After that, he begins to eat darkness in the heart of this person and allows the entity to accumulate the dark chakra (я の チ ャ ク ラ, yami no chakra) The dark chakra produced by Nulekhvost gives its owner a huge source of energy, thereby providing access to high-level techniques without the need for hand seals and negating any side effects that these techniques can usually cause, as well as energizing an entire heavenly fortress. As long as there is darkness in someone’s heart, in close proximity to Zero-Tail, he can non-stop produce the dark chakra at unlimited speed. However, as with the regular chakra, the dark chakra also requires proper control to take advantage of it, and disrupting the flow of the chakra can lead to serious negative consequences that can even destroy the body of the user himself, as happened with Shinno when Sasuke The Uchiha hit him with a Tenkets.
Along with the ability to detect negative emotions, Zero-Tailed also seems to be able to read the hearts of others, seeing Naruto’s strong desire to save Sasuke, as well as his pain from not being able to bring him back.
Zero-tailed is able to generate many hands from his body, which can spread over long distances, and also instantly attach cut off parts of his body and even his head.
The survivors of the Sky Country shinobi used Zero-Tailed to prudently create enough dark chakra to nourish their absolute weapon, Ankor Vantiana, with energy. The same dark chakra was personally used by Shinno - an agent of the Sky Country and the person who organized the revival of the power of the Sky Country. His initial goal was to attack the village of Amaru, so that she fell into despair, which could then be used by Nulekhvosty and capture the body of Amaru to get more dark chakra, but when she overcame her sadness with Naruto, the beast left her body and moved to Ankor Vantian . After Shinno was weakened by Sasuke Uchiha, Shinno merged with Nulekhvosty to gain more power. But as soon as Sasuke destroyed the pillar that restrained the beast, and Naruto struck him a mortal blow, the beast fell into a rage and destroyed the entire heavenly fortress, thereby killing all the soldiers inside. It is not known what happened to him later, however, in the end, Naruto completely destroyed the fortress with him inside, therefore, perhaps for this reason Nulekhvosty could be destroyed.
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